Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, autoimmune disease characterized by damage to the myelin sheaths of nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. This illness is not senile sclerosis, and has nothing similar with memory impairment. In this case, “sclerosis” means “scar”, since the hallmark of this disorder is the existence of multiple lesions that do not have any precise localization. The disease proceeds by alternating periods of exacerbation with periods of temporary improvement. After each period of exacerbation, irreversible disorders occur in the brain region, which leads to disability.
Classification of Multiple sclerosis
Depending on the course of disease, there are different types of multiple sclerosis:
- remitting (recurrent). This form is characterized by alternation of exacerbation periods with periods of remission, including partial regression of neurological symptoms. The form is inherent in the initial stage of the development of this disease;
- secondary progressive. It is characterized by the constant manifestation of neurological symptoms 7-10 years after the initially developed recurrent form (in most cases);
- primary progressive. It is the most difficult form of the illness, since neurological symptoms are continuously increasing from the first day of the disease.
Symptoms of Multiple sclerosis
The main symptoms of multiple sclerosis are:
- feeling of weakness in the limbs;
- weakness in the legs, gait becomes poorly coordinated;
- uncontrolled sharp movements of the eyeballs from one side to the other;
- strabismus may occur due to impaired eye movements;
- the skin becomes less sensitive to temperature changes and pain;
- sensation of an electric shock passing through the spine;
- disorders in the genitourinary system;
- decreased visual acuity, blurry vision of objects, turbidity and distortion of color perception;
- difficulties during swallowing;
- slurred speech;
- behavioral changes;
- seizures or inappropriate reactions that are hysterical;
- depression or euphoria.
Reasons for Multiple sclerosis
According to the studies, there is no clear answer what causes multiple sclerosis. However, there are theories that the illness develops due to human`s environment, genes, white ethnicity.
Multiple sclerosis symptoms in females are two times likely to develop than in men. Also, there are 2-5% chances that a baby, born from the mother with this illness will suffer from it too. Generally, In the age of 15-60 people are at risk of this disorder.
Diagnostics of Multiple sclerosis
For an accurate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, the specialist analyzes complaints concerning how long ago the first neurological disorders appeared. Besides, the doctor may ask whether this disease occurred among relatives.
The next step is a neurological examination to determine the presence of neurological pathologies, specifically speech test, check for visual impairments, skin sensitivity test, muscle tone disorders and muscle weakening examination. MRI of the head and spinal cord makes it possible to make a full study.
Multiple sclerosis treatment
Unfortunately, the treatment of multiple sclerosis does not end up with complete recovery. However, there is therapy which increases the remission period, including large doses of drugs containing hormones and plasmapheresis.
The signs of multiple sclerosis are easy to spot, which can help you start treatment as early as possible.
Complications of Multiple sclerosis
Otherwise, irreversible neurological disorders may be observed in the body. Even more, there is a risk of death from diseases that progress against the background of the body’s immobility. There are no specially developed methods for the prevention of this disease. Eventually, the only thing that can reduce the risk of disease is replacing the climate with a more favorable one.