What is Guillain-Barre syndrome?
Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a disease in which the sheath of nerve fibers (myelin) is destroyed, which leads to impaired movement and sensitivity disorders. It usually develops some time after the infection. Myelin is a special sheath of nerve fibers that is necessary for the conduction of nerve impulses.
In Guillain-Barre disease, it is destroyed by the body’s own immune system. Normally, the immune system detects and destroys foreign objects (for example, pathogens of infectious diseases), but in some cases, it begins to fight against native cells.
Which Guillain-Barre Syndrome Causes are?
The Guillain-Barre Syndrome causes are unknown. The immunity perceives its own cells as foreign, and forms antibodies to the cells of nerve endings, destroying them. Clinical cases of manifestation of symptoms were recorded as a reaction to immunization, some patients, several cases before the onset of symptoms, had complaints of a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection.
What Guillain-Barre Syndrome Symptoms are?
We already know what gbs is, but what type of respiratory failure is caused by Guillain-Barre’ syndrome? In most cases, symptoms appear 1-3 weeks after an acute infection of the respiratory system, gastrointestinal infections. These infections can be caused by these and other pathogens:
- campylobacter — found in the meat of infected birds and causes gastrointestinal infection when ingested with food;
- influenza virus;
- Epstein-Barr virus (causative agent of contagions mononucleosis);
- mycoplasma — can cause pneumonia in people infected with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
In severe forms of the Guillain-Barre Syndrome, complications are possible.
- Breathing disorder. It occurs as a result of weakness or paralysis (complete lack of ability to move) of the respiratory muscles and threatens the patient’s life. In cases of spontaneous breathing, it is ineffective, artificial ventilation of the lungs is carried out (using a special apparatus).
- Disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system.
- Prolonged immobility. Increases the risk of thromboembolism.
- Pressure ulcers are dead skin, underlying soft tissues, which are used for prolonged immobility of tissue, which disrupts the blood supply to the tissue.
The Guillain-Barre disease lasts for several weeks, and it may take several months to restore the lost functions. In most cases, complete recovery occurs.
Why Diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome important?
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Diagnosis is rather difficult, since there are no specific studies to identify it. In this case, the diagnosis is based on the analysis of clinical manifestations, the study of the history of the disease, analyzes to exclude other diseases of the nervous system. Timely starting Guillain-Barre Syndrome treatment allows you to achieve complete recovery, although some people may still have muscle weakness, a feeling of numbness.
What Guillain-Barre Syndrome Treatment is?
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Treatment is conservative. Various drugs are used to eliminate individual manifestations of the disease, to combat the complications of this disease.
The most effective are the following techniques:
- Intravenous administration of immunoglobulin.
In the recovery period, physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy are used to restore the strength of various muscle groups. The illness responds well to treatment: in 80%, the patient manages to completely get rid of the sickness. The mortality rate of the illness is low — only 5% of the number of cases.